Food allergy and adverse reaction to foods

Food allergy is an adverse body reaction due to the immune response that occurs because of exposure to some food and its substances. These substances can be found everywhere, including natural and raw food components, processed foods, semi-processed ones, food additives, and supplements. All can trigger the body's immune system and result in food allergies.

What are adverse food reactions?

Both food allergies and food intolerances can result in health affecting symptoms.

What is a food allergy?

The immune system can respond adversely to some particular foods. Allergy leads to an adverse immune-mediated reaction to a food, a food protein, or some specific glycoprotein that the person has been sensitized to it. This response can occur when the food is eaten. It will cause the release of inflammatory mediators or some chemicals that act on body tissues. This function can result in symptoms that may differ from mild to severe. The reaction can be either IgE-mediated and occurs reproducibly upon exposure to that food.

The adverse food reactions categorized into two groups:
1. The immune-mediated food allergies
2. Non-immune mediated food intolerance

♦ The immune-mediated food allergies are divided into three groups of:
1. IgE mediated
2. Non-IgE mediated
3. the mixture of both.
 ♦ The non-immune mediated food intolerance range is more comprehensive. It is divided into different groups such as Microbial, Pharmacological, Toxicological, Gastrointestinal, Physiological, Metabolic, and other undefined mechanisms.

Food intolerance is an adverse reaction to food components. It may be due to the body's inability to digest, absorb, or metabolize a portion of food or its ingredient.
Intolerant to histamine-containing foods due to enzyme deficiencies or other mechanisms.


What is a food allergy symptom?

The difference in symptoms due to each substance and their reactions are significant.
Here is a list of all of the probable symptoms that may occur, and we will check and link them to their particular food substances. We describe the causes of the reactions.


List of all of the symptoms of Food allergy and adverse reactions:

♦ Swelling of one part of the body like face, tongue, or mouth
♦ Vomit
♦ Bloating
♦ Cramps
♦ Flatulence
♦ Low Blood pressure
♦ Abdominal pain
♦ Pain after eating
♦ Hives
♦ Skin rash
♦ Itch in eyes, mouth, throat, tongue, lips, skin
♦ Nausea
♦ Runny nose
♦ Hoarse voice
♦ Head levity
♦ Anemia
♦ Difficulty in swallowing
♦ Faint
♦ Anaphylaxis

How to treat food allergies?

The first approach to compete for food allergies is diagnosing them. The signs and symptoms differ from person to person, and some allergen may have mild to severe symptoms while it cannot affect the other person. There are different ways to determine which food, their allergen, and their antibodies can affect a person sensitive to them.
Skin prick testing, Blood test, vega testing, hair analysis, Food elimination diet, kinesiology testing, and leuko-cytotoxic test are different ways of finding the allergens and food allergies.

The food elimination diet in allergies

It is much more like starting the complementary feeding for infants after 4-6 months years old.
The duration of the diet is about six weeks. You can eat all these kinds of foods (Vegetables, legumes, meat (except unprocessed or precooked meats), fish and seafood) during it and it is better to eat them raw, fresh and uncooked.
You have to eliminate allergic foods like eggs and nuts and avoid them having better control of foods.
The elimination has the same instruction apply as a 2-food elimination diet but eliminates two or more food groups.
During an elimination diet, you can drink coffee, tea (without animal milk), soda, cola, fruit juice, wine, etc. you have to avoid Beer and whiskey due to their gluten-containing. You can have coffee with soy, rice, almond, walnut, nut, and quinoa drinks.
Gluten-free products are a good source for those who have celiac disease.

Foods to avoid in allergies:

♦ Animal milk and milk products and those products that have milk content (whole, low-fat, skim, buttermilk, evaporated, condensed, powdered, formula milk, hot cocoa, all kind of cheeses, yogurt, butter, margarine, ice creams, milkshakes, custard, creme caramel, and rice or tapioca pudding, biscuits, cookies, doughnuts, muffins, pancakes, waffles, crackers, cream desserts, sweets, candies, chocolate with milk, sausages, ham, pork sausage)
♦ Wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt, triticale, semolina, and Kamut products. Wheat bread, toast, biscuits, cookies, doughnuts, muffins, pretzels, pancakes, waffles, crackers, cream desserts, sweets, candies, pasta, cream, soups, sauces, malted food, and breaded or floured vegetables. Flour or floured, farina, wheat enriched, malted or malt added, breaded, Starch, fibre, protein, vegetable protein, semolina, hydrolyzed protein, malt, malt extract, couscous, yeast, spices, flavourings.
♦ Beer, whiskey
♦ All products containing egg and egg products such as baked goods, pasta, cakes, biscuits, cookies, doughnuts, muffins, pretzel, pancakes, waffles, crackers, cream desserts, sweets, candies, processed meat, goose liver, mayonnaise, food coated, and wrapped in bread, breaded or creamed vegetables, processed meat, sauces.
♦ Foods that contain Albumin, apovitellin, binder, coagulant, cholesterol-free egg substitute, dried egg, egg white, egg yolk, egg lecithin, egg lysosome, eggnog, egg wash, globulin, lecithin, livetin, lysozyme, meringue, meringue powder, simplesse, surimi, ovalbumin, ovomucin, ovomucoid, ovomucin, ovomucoid, ovotransferrin, ovovitellin, powdered egg, trailblazer, vitellin, whole egg.
♦ Soy, lentils, pea, chickpeas, beans, peanuts, lupin, guar gum, carob bean, alfalfa.
♦ Foods that contain Hydrolyzed vegetable protein, plant protein, vegetable gum, and vegetable starch. These products are usually present in canned or processed foods.
♦ Oil made with any of the legumes mentioned above.
♦ African and Asian ethnic foods often contain soy and peanuts.
♦ Almond, artificial nuts, Brazil nut, beechnut, butternut, cashew, chestnut, chinquapin nut, coconut, filbert/hazelnut, gianduja (a chocolate-nut mixture), ginkgo nut, hickory nut, litchi/lychee/lychee nut, macadamia nut, marzipan/almond paste, nangai nut, natural nut extract (e.g., almond, walnut), nut butter (e.g., cashew butter), nut meal, nut meat, nut milk (e.g., almond milk, cashew milk), nut paste (e.g., almond paste), nut pieces, pecan, pesto, pili nut, pine nut (also referred to as Indian, pignoli, pigñolia, Pignon, piñon, and pinyon nut), pistachio, praline, shea nut, walnut.
♦ Oil made with any of the nuts as mentioned above.
♦ African and Asian ethnic foods often contain nuts.
♦ Tree nut proteins may be found in cereals, crackers, cookies, candy, chocolates, energy bars, flavoured coffee, frozen desserts, marinades, barbecue sauces, and some cold cuts, such as mortadella. Some alcoholic beverages may contain nut flavouring.
♦ All kinds of fish (anchovies, bass, catfish, cod, flounder, grouper, haddock, hake, halibut, herring, mahi-mahi, perch, pike, pollock, salmon, scrod, swordfish, sole, snapper, tilapia, trout, tuna)
♦ All kinds of shellfish (crab, lobster, prawns, shrimps) and mollusks (cockles, mussels, octopus, oyster, snails, squid).
♦ Oil or gelatin made with any of the fish as mentioned earlier or seafood products.
♦ African and Asian ethnic foods usually contain fish and seafood and are considered high-risk.

Foods allowed

Soy milk, rice milk, spelt milk, quinoa milk, almond milk, cashew milk, or other nuts milk, the products that are allowed for celiac patients, and they do not contain milk or milk proteins.

What are the simple ways to defeat allergies?

♦ Close the window to prevent allergens from entering.
♦ Watch your food substitutes0
♦ Avoid dining out and eating away from home.
♦ Paying attention to the label of products and considering the allergies during grocery shopping.
♦ Exclusive breastfeeding for 4 to 6 months to prevent allergies.
♦ Avoid early introduction of potential food allergens such as egg white, peanut, etc., from 4 months.
♦ Strength your immunity and consuming vitamin D and omega-3 supplements.

List of food intolerances and Gastrointestinal disorders related to food

Enzyme deficiencies

Lactase deficiency or Lactose intolerance

Intolerant to mammalian milk due to the inability to digest the carbohydrate lactose. All of the milk that contains lactose can induce this intolerance.
Symptoms
: Diarrhea, Bloating, Flatulence, abdominal pain


Favism or glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

Intolerant to Fava or broad beans
Symptoms
: Hemolytic Anemia


Fructose Malabsorption

Intolerant to foods containing fructose or sucrose
Symptoms
: Bloating, Flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea


FODMAP intolerance

Foods that contain fructo-, oligo-, di-, monosaccharides, and polyols
Symptoms
: Bloating, Flatulence, abdominal pain, Diarrhea, Cramping

Diseases

Cystic fibrosis

A hereditary disease is resulting malabsorption and gastrointestinal tracts due to consuming many types of foods, especially high-fat ones.
Symptoms
: Bloating, Malabsorption, abdominal pain, loose stools


Gallbladder disease

Some symptoms due to consuming high-fat foods
Symptoms
: Abdominal pain after eating


Pancreatic disease and IBD

Symptoms: Anorexia, nausea, dysgeusia (distortion of the sense of taste), other gastrointestinal symptoms

Inborn Errors of metabolism

Phenylketonuria

Consuming foods containing phenylalanine
Symptoms
: elevated serum phenylalanine levels, mental retardation


Galactosemia

Consuming foods containing lactose or galactose
Symptoms
: Vomiting, Lethargy, failure to thrive

Psychological or neurologic disorder

Psychological or neurologic disorder

Symptoms: Wide variety of symptoms involving any system that any food may cause


Phenylethylamine reactions

Foods: Chocolate, aged cheeses, red wine
Symptoms
: migraine headaches

Reactions to pharmacological Agents in foods

Tyramine reactions

These foods include tyramine: Aged cheese, brewer's yeast, red wine, canned fish, chicken liver, bananas, eggplant, tomatoes, raspberries, plums
Symptoms
: Migraine headaches, cutaneous erythema, urticarial, a hypertensive crisis in patients taking MAOIs


Histamine and histamine-releasing agents' reactions

Foods include histamine: Aged cheeses, sauerkraut, yogurt, kefir, sausages, bologna, salami, canned and smoked fish, red beans, soybeans, citrus, avocado, eggplant, olives, tomatoes, tomato products, chocolate, cocoa, tea, yeast, many spices, many food additives, many foods preservatives, shellfish, egg whites, strawberries, pineapple, spinach, nuts, peanuts, alcohol
Symptoms
: Dizziness, flushing, hives, erythema, runny nose, headaches, decreased blood pressures, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, edema, urticaria, eczema, itch

Reactions to food additives

Artificial colours

tartrazine or FD&C yellow #5 and other azo dyes reactions
Include: Artificially coloured yellow or yellow-orange foods, soft drinks, some medicines
Symptoms
: Hives, rash, asthma, nausea, headaches


Benzoates

benzoic acid or sodium benzoate
Processed foods as antimicrobial preservatives, colour preservatives, bleaching agents
Berries, cinnamon, some spices, tea, spicy sauces, curry powder, avocado, dried fruits, carbonated drinks, alcoholic mixers, milkshake syrup, canned beans, flavoured chips, salad dressings
Symptoms
: Hives, rash, asthma, angioedema, nasal congestion, headache, contact dermatitis, diverse digestive tract symptoms


BHA, BHT reactions

Used as an antioxidant in processed foods and used in packaging materials
Symptoms
: skin reactions like hives


Monosodium glutamate (MSG) reactions

Canned foods, chips, gravy, flavour packets for instant soups, added flavour enhancer, Asian cuisines, aged cheeses like parmesan, fish sauces, mushrooms, spinach, Marmite
Symptoms
: Facial numbness, tingling, and numbness in extremities such as feet and hands, dizziness, the problem in maintenance of balance, visual disturbance, headaches, asthma, flushing, diverse digestive tract symptoms


Nitrates and nitrites

In processed foods that contain sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrite, and potassium nitrate, cured meats, canned meats, smoked fish, Pâté, picked meats
Symptoms
: hives, flushing, migraine, headaches, digestive tract symptoms


Salicylates

In a variety of fruits, vegetables, and spices
Symptoms
: Angioedema, asthma, hives, sensitive people to aspirin

Food Allergy

Milk allergy

Milk allergy is an adverse reaction of the immune system and protein of cow's milk. It can result in anaphylaxis. This milk allergy is much different from lactose intolerance that we explained recently.
Symptoms
: rash, hives, itching, swelling, difficulty in swallowing, runny nose, wheezing


Egg allergy

We describe egg allergy as the hypersensitivity to the protein in eggs. It occurs mostly in children.
Symptoms
: rash, hives, itching of parts of the mouth, face, and body, abdominal pain, sometimes anaphylaxis.


Peanut allergy

There are 11 peanut allergens.
Symptoms
: itchiness, eczema, asthma attack, abdominal pain, hives, drop in blood pressure, swelling, Diarrhea, cardiac arrest, Anaphylaxis.


Tree nut allergy

Tree nut allergy is the overreaction of the immune system to Cashews, almonds, brazil nuts, chestnuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pistachios, pecans, walnuts.
Symptoms
: Asthma, itchy throat, swollen eyes, skin rash, anaphylaxis


Fish allergy

A fish allergy happens due to the parvalbumin protein in fish such as Atlantic Cod, Carp, Atlantic Salmon, Pacific Mackerel, and Atlantic herring.
Symptoms
: rash, hives, itching in mouth, eyes, other areas of the body, difficulty in swallowing, runny or congested nose, hoarse voice, wheezing, shortness of breath, diarrhea, abdominal pain, etc.


Shellfish allergy

It is The immune system's reaction to shellfish, crustaceans, lobster, shrimp, crab, clam, oyster, and mussel. The reason for this reaction is the tropomyosin protein.
Symptoms
: rash, hives, swelling, wheezing, runny nose, nausea, faintness, vomit, pale skin, cyanosis, etc.


Soy allergy

Reaction to some specific proteins in soy and its products.
Symptoms
: gastrointestinal problems, respiratory problems, skin reactions, anaphylaxis


Wheat allergy

Due to the gluten, prolamin, glutelin, Albumin and globulin, wheat pollen and grass, and other derivative allergies. It can be either a food or contact allergy.
Symptoms
: eczema, sacroiliitis, asthma, hives, angioedema, cramps, nausea, vomit

Let us know if you have any questions or comments.